Data: Mon, 14 Jul 2003 15:15:08 -0000
Da: raf.capone@libero.it
Oggetto: Campi magnetici occupazionali
Roma, 14 luglio 2003. Alleghiamo l'abstract di un articolo pubblicato sulla rivista scientifica Epidemiology di questo Luglio (www.epidem.com). Esso è relativo ad uno studio di coorte condotto in Svezia con il quale si dimostra che il rischio di mortalità per morbo di Alzheimer negli uomini sottopposti ad esposizioni occupazionali a campi magnetici a frequenza estremamente bassa (50 Hz), di intensità maggiore o uguale a 0.5 microTesla, negli anni dal 1981 al 1995, è risultato pari a 2.3 volte l'atteso. Lo studio fornisce un supporto all'ipotesi che l'esposizione a tali campi aumenta il rischio di una anticipazione della malattia, e suggerisce che l'esposizione al campo magnetico può influire più in avanti nel decorso della malattia.

Cari saluti. Raffaele Capone. Coordinamento dei Comitati di Roma Nord. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Epidemiology 2003; 14(4):413-419
Occupational Magnetic Field Exposure and Neurodegenerative Disease Maria Feychting *; Fredrik Jonsson *; Nancy L. Pedersen + ?; Anders Ahlbom *

Editors' note: an invited commentary on this article appears on page 384.
Background:
Several studies have identified occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) as a potential risk factor for neurodegenerative disease, but the evidence is contradictory and inconclusive

Methods:
We conducted a cohort study to explore these associations. We studied all economically active individuals in the Swedish 1980 census (4,812,646 subjects), and followed them for neurodegenerative disease mortality from 1981 through 1995. Information about occupation was available for 1970 and 1980. A job-exposure matrix based on magnetic field measurements was used to assess EMF exposure

Results:
An increased risk of Alzheimer's disease mortality was observed among men exposed both in 1970 and 1980 (relative risk == 2.3; 95% confidence interval == 1.6-3.3 for exposure >==0.5 ?T). The associations were most pronounced for early-onset Alzheimer's disease mortality or with follow-up limited to 10 years after the last known occupation. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was not associated with EMF exposure, but the risk estimate with "electrical and electronics work" was 1.4 (95% confidence interval == 1.1-1.9)

Conclusions:
Our study gives some support to the hypothesis that EMF exposure increases the risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, and suggests that magnetic field exposure may represent a late-acting influence in the disease process. Electric shock is an unlikely explanation for the increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in "electrical and electronics work" in this study.

Key Words Alzheimer's disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; electromagnetic fields; neurodegenerative disease; occupation

*Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and the +Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; and the ?University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Submitted 28 August 2002; final version accepted 11 March 2003.
This study was funded by a grant from the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research.
Correspondence: Maria Feychting, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: Maria.Feychting@imm.ki.se.

Epidemiology 2003; 14(4):413-419 Copyright © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins All rights reserved ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Data: Mon, 14 Jul 2003 15:48:51 -0000
Da: "roma_nord" <raf.capone@libero.it>
Oggetto: ELF-EMF: Alzheimer e ALS.
Roma, 14 luglio 2003. Alleghiamo l'abstract di un ulteriore articolo pubblicato sulla rivista scientifica Epidemiology di questo Luglio (www.epidem.com). Esso si riferisce ad uno studio condotto in Svezia fra lavoratori di industrie di ingegneria comprendente 537.692 uomini e 180.529 donne. E' risultato che il rischio di morbo di Alzheimer come causa primaria di morte o come concausa aumenta al crescere dell'esposizione ai campi elettromagnetici a frequenza estremamente bassa sia fra gli uomini e sia fra le donne, con un rischio relativo di 4 volte il valore atteso nel gruppo con livello di esposizione più elevato. Per lo stesso gruppo di livello di esposizione è risultato un rischio relativo di Sclerosi Laterale Amiotrofica (ALS) di 2.2 volte il valore atteso suggerendo una relazione dose-risposta. Non è stato evidenziato un maggior rischio per il morbo di Parkinson o la sclerosi multipla.

Ancora saluti. Raffaele Capone. Coordinamento dei Comitati di Roma Nord. ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Neurodegenerative Diseases in Welders and Other Workers Exposed to High Levels of Magnetic Fields
Niclas Håkansson * +; Per Gustavsson ? §; Christoffer Johansen ¶;
Birgitta Floderus +
Background:
Previous work has suggested an increase in risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease among workers exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). We evaluated the relation between ELF-MF from occupational exposures and mortality from neurodegenerative diseases.

Methods:
The study was based on a cohort of Swedish engineering industry workers, comprising 537,692 men and 180,529 women. The cohort was matched against the 3 most recent censuses and The Causes of Death Registry. Levels of ELF-MF exposure were obtained by linking occupation according to the censuses to a job exposure matrix. We used 4 levels of exposure and considered both the primary and contributing causes of death, 1985-96.

Results:
The risk of Alzheimer's disease as primary or contributing cause of death increased with increasing exposure to ELF-MF among both men and women, with a relative risk (RR) of 4.0 and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.4-11.7 in the highest exposure group for both sexes combined. There was a RR of 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-4.7) for ALS in the highest exposure group with the suggestion of an exposure-response relationship. No evidence of increased risk was seen for Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis.

Conclusions:
The findings support previous observations of an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and ALS among employees occupationally exposed to ELF-MF. Further studies based on morbidity data are warranted.

Key Words Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Electromagnetic Fields; Neurodegenerative Disease; Occupation

From the
*Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden,
+National Institute for Working Life, Solna, Sweden,
?Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Stockholm Public Health Center, Stockholm, Sweden,
§Division of Occupational Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden,
¶Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
This work was supported by grant from ELFORSK, Sweden.
Address correspondence to: Niclas Håkansson, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46 8 728 70 80, Fax: +46 8 30 45 71. E-mail: niclas.hakansson@imm.ki.se.

Submitted 12 March 2002; final version accepted 12 November 2002.
Epidemiology 2003; 14(4):420-426 Copyright © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins All rights reserved ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Data: Mon, 14 Jul 2003 16:22:01 -0000
Da: "roma_nord" <raf.capone@libero.it>
Oggetto: Esposizione a campi ELF in gravidanza e leucemia infantile.
Roma, 14 luglio 2003. Alleghiamo l'abstract di un terzo art. tratto dalla rivista Epidemilogy di questo luglio (www.epidem.com) relativo ad uno studio epidemiologico caso-controllo condotto in Canada su donne esposte a campi elettromagnetici a frequenza estremamente bassa durante la gravidanza per verificare l'incidenza della leucemia infantile. Sono stati esaminati 491 casi di leucemia infantile acuta linfoblastica in bambini di età compresa fra 0 e 9 anni verificatisi nella provincia del Quebec fra il 1980 ed il 1993. E' stato visto che confrontando il 10% delle madri più esposte con le altre, nel caso di donne esposte a livelli di campo magnetico massimo superiori a 0.4 microTesla, l'incidenza di leucemia acuta linfoblastica è risultata pari a 2.5 volte il valore atteso.

Saluti. Raffaele Capone. Coordinamento dei Comitati di Roma Nord.
----------------------------------------
Maternal Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy and Childhood Leukemia Claire Infante-Rivard *+, Jan Erik Deadman *

Background:
Pregnancy is a target period for events that could induce childhood leukemia. There has been little attention to possible effects of maternal occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) during pregnancy.

Methods:
We conducted a population-based, case-control study of 491 incident cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children 0-9 years of age, matched on age and sex to 491 healthy controls. Cases were diagnosed in the Province of Québec between 1980 and 1993. Mothers were interviewed to obtain detailed prenatal occupational history; individual exposure to ELF-MF was estimated based on a method we recently developed. We used 3 metrics for analyzing exposure: cumulative, average and maximum levels. Analyses were carried out among all study women and among working women only.

Results:
Comparing the highest 10% of exposed mothers to the others, the risk of leukemia among offspring was moderately increased by using any metric, in all women and among working women only. The highest odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-5.0) was found for maximum exposure attained in an occupation (>= 0.4 microtesla).

Conclusions:
Our results are compatible with an increased risk of childhood leukemia among children whose mothers were exposed to the highest occupational levels of ELF-MF during pregnancy.

Key Words acute lymphoblastic leukemia; electromagnetic fields; child; maternal exposure; occupational exposure
From the
*Joint Departments of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Canada; and

+Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mère-Enfant, Hôpital Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Canada.
The study was funded by the National Health and Welfare Research and Development Program Grant, Leukemia Research Fund of Canada, and the "Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Québec-Hydro-Québec Program".

Professor Infante-Rivard holds a Canada Research Chair-James McGill Professorship from McGill University.
Correspondence: Claire Infante-Rivard, Joint Departments of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, 1130 Pine Avenue West, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A3. E-mail: claire.infante-rivard@mcgill.ca.

Submitted 12 September 2002; final version accepted 14 January 2003.
Epidemiology 2003; 14(4):437-441 Copyright © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins All rights reserved